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Global Carbon Budget

Data Sources

The annual update of the Global Carbon Budget is possible thanks to many institutions, observation networks and modeling groups around the world.

All datasets and modeling output to complete the Global Carbon Budget 2021 are described in detail in Friedlingstein et al. (2022) https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-14-1917-2022.

All datasets contributing to the Global Carbon Budget 2021 have been integrated in to two Excel files, one for the global budget and one for national emissions. They are archived in ICOS: https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2021. Previous years can be found in The Global Carbon Budget Archive. 2020, 2019, 2018 and 2017 datasets are also stored at ICOS, and years before this at CDIAC.

Data Sources and Terms of Use

The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Full details on how to cite the data are given at the top of each page. For research projects, if the data are essential to the work, or if an important result or conclusion depends on the data, co-authorship may need to be considered. The Global Carbon Project facilitates access to data to encourage its use and promote a good understanding of the carbon cycle. Respecting original data sources is key to help secure the support of data providers to enhance, maintain and update valuable data. For further details, check Governance, Appendix A: Fair use policy for model data.

Summary Main Data Sources

Component Source
Atmospheric CO2 concentration
Fossil fuel emissions and Industry
Consumption-based emissions
Land use change emissions
  • FRA 2020 and updates
  • Gasser et al 2020
  • Houghton and Nassikas 2017
  • Hansis et al 2015
  • Van der Werf GFED
  • Multiple Global Dynamic Vegetation Models, data and references in the ICOS Excel files (also above)
Ocean sink
  • Multiple biogeochemical and transport ocean models
  • Two observation-based estimates; data and references in the ICOS Excel files (also above), and ESSD paper
Land sink