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Global Carbon Budget
Publications

Papers, Contributors and how to cite Global Carbon Budget 2021

The primary reference for Carbon Budget 2021 is:

Global Carbon Budget 2021, by Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Rob B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Peter Anthoni, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Laurent Bopp, Thi T. T. Chau, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Kim I. Currie, Bertrand Decharme, Laique Djeutchouang, Xinyu Dou, Wiley Evans, Richard A. Feely, Liang Feng, Thomas Gasser, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Giacomo Grassi, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Atul K. Jain, Steve D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefčvre, Sebastian Lienert, Junjie Liu, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Clemens Schwingshackl, Roland Séférian, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco Tubiello, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, and Jiye Zeng (2021), Earth System Science Data, DOI: 10.5194/essd-2021-386. Please note, publication is in pre-print.

Contact lead author: Pierre Friedlingstein

Otherwise please refer as: Global Carbon Project (2021) Carbon budget and trends 2021. [www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget] published on 4 November 2021, along with any other original peer-reviewed papers and data sources as appropriate.

Other papers relevant to the Carbon Budget 2021:

Global fossil carbon emissions rebound near pre-COVID-19 levels by RB Jackson, P Friedlingstein, C Le Quéré, S Abernethy, RM Andrew, JG Canadell, P Ciais, SJ Davis, Zhu Deng, Zhu Liu, GP Peters (2021), Environmental Research Letters, 2021. Please note, publication is in pre-print.

Access to paper

For data sources refer to Data.

Contributors to Global Carbon Budget 2021

  • Pierre Friedlingstein (College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK and Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure/Université PSL, Sorbonne Université, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France)
  • Matthew W. Jones (Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK)
  • Michael O'Sullivan (College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK)
  • Robbie M. Andrew (CICERO Center for International Climate Research, Oslo 0349, Norway)
  • Dorothee C. E. Bakker (School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK)
  • Judith Hauck (Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven)
  • Corinne Le Quéré (Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK)
  • Glen P. Peters (CICERO Center for International Climate Research, Oslo 0349, Norway)
  • Wouter Peters (Wageningen University, Environmental Sciences Group, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands and University of Groningen, Centre for Isotope Research, Groningen, The Netherlands)
  • Julia Pongratz (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Luisenstr. 37, 80333 München, Germany and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany)
  • Stephen Sitch (College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK)
  • Josep G. Canadell (CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia)
  • Philippe Ciais (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France)
  • Rob B. Jackson (Department of Earth System Science, Woods Institute for the Environment, and Precourt Institute for Energy, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305–2210, United States of America)
  • Simone R. Alin (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA/PMEL), 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA)
  • Peter Anthoni (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research/Atmospheric Environmental Research, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany)
  • Nicholas R. Bates (Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS), 17 Biological Lane, Ferry Reach, St. Georges, GEO1, Bermuda)
  • Meike Becker (Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway)
  • Nicolas Bellouin (Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK)
  • Laurent Bopp (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique/Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace, CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure/Université PSL, Sorbonne Université, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France)
  • Thi T. T. Chau (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France)
  • Frédéric Chevallier (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France)
  • Louise P. Chini (Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA)
  • Margot Cronin (Marine Institute Ireland, Galway, Rinville, Ireland)
  • Kim I. Currie (NIWA, Union Place West, Dunedin, New Zealand)
  • Bertrand Decharme (CNRM, Université de Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, Toulouse, France)
  • Laique Djeutchouang (Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7701, South Africa and SOCCO, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Cape Town, 7700, South Africa)
  • Xinyu Dou (Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China)
  • Wiley Evans (Hakai Institute, Heriot Bay, BC, Canada)
  • Richard A. Feely (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA/PMEL), 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA)
  • Liang Feng (National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Edinburgh, UK)
  • Thomas Gasser (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1 A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria)
  • Dennis Gilfillan (North Carolina School for Science and Mathematics, Durham, North Carolina, USA)
  • Thanos Gkritzalis (Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ), InnovOceanSite, Wandelaarkaai 7, 8400 Ostend, Belgium)
  • Giacomo Grassi (European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy)
  • Luke Gregor (Environmental Physics Group, ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics and Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM), 8092 Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Nicolas Gruber (Environmental Physics Group, ETH Zürich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics and Center for Climate Systems Modeling (C2SM), 8092 Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Özgür Gürses (Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven)
  • Ian Harris (NCAS-Climate, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK)
  • Richard A. Houghton (Woodwell Climate Research Center, Falmouth, MA 02540, USA)
  • George C. Hurtt (Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA)
  • Yosuke Iida (Atmosphere and Ocean Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Minato-Ku, Tokyo 105-8431, Japan)
  • Tatiana Ilyina (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany)
  • Ingrid T. Luijkx (Wageningen University, Environmental Sciences Group, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands)
  • Atul K. Jain (Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61821, USA)
  • Steve D. Jones (Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway)
  • Etsushi Kato (Institute of Applied Energy (IAE), Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003, Japan)
  • Daniel Kennedy (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Climate and Global Dynamics, Terrestrial Sciences Section, Boulder, CO 80305, USA)
  • Kees Klein Goldewijk (Utrecht University, Faculty of Geosciences, Department IMEW, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Heidelberglaan 2, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC, Utrecht, the Netherlands)
  • Jürgen Knauer (CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Canberra, ACT 2101, Australia and Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Penrith, New South Wales, Australia)
  • Jan Ivar Korsbakken (CICERO Center for International Climate Research, Oslo 0349, Norway)
  • Arne Körtzinger (GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany)
  • Peter Landschützer (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany)
  • Siv K. Lauvset (Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway and NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Jahnebakken 5, 5007 Bergen, Norway)
  • Nathalie Lefčvre (LOCEAN/IPSL laboratory, Sorbonne Université, CNRS/IRD/MNHN, Paris, France)
  • Sebastian Lienert (Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland)
  • Junjie Liu (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA)
  • Gregg Marland (Research Institute for Environment, Energy, and Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, USA and Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, USA)
  • Patrick C. McGuire (Department of Meteorology, Department of Geography & Environmental Science, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Reading, Reading, UK)
  • Joe R. Melton (Climate Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Victoria, BC, Canada)
  • David R. Munro (Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80305, USA and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Global Monitoring Laboratory (NOAA/GML), Boulder, CO, 80305, USA)
  • Julia E. M. S. Nabel (Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany)
  • Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka (Earth System Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506 Japan)
  • Yosuke Niwa (Earth System Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506 Japan and Meteorological Research Institute, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0052 Japan)
  • Tsuneo Ono (Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, 2-12-4 Fukuura, Kanazawa-Ku, Yokohama 236-8648, Japan)
  • Denis Pierrot (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML), Miami, FL 33149, USA)
  • Benjamin Poulter (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA)
  • Gregor Rehder (Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende (IOW), Seestrasse 15; 18119 Rostock, Germany)
  • Laure Resplandy (Princeton University, Department of Geosciences and Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton, NJ, USA)
  • Eddy Robertson (Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK)
  • Christian Rödenbeck (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany)
  • Thais M. Rosan (College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK)
  • Jörg Schwinger (Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway and NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Jahnebakken 5, 5007 Bergen, Norway)
  • Clemens Schwingshackl (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Luisenstr. 37, 80333 München, Germany)
  • Roland Séférian (CNRM, Université de Toulouse, Météo-France, CNRS, Toulouse, France)
  • Adrienne J. Sutton (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA/PMEL), 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA)
  • Colm Sweeney (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Global Monitoring Laboratory (NOAA/GML), Boulder, CO, 80305, USA)
  • Toste Tanhua (GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany)
  • Pieter P. Tans (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA ESRL),Boulder, CO 80305, USA)
  • Hanqin Tian (School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, 602 Ducan Drive, Auburn, AL 36849, USA)
  • Bronte Tilbrook (CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, PO Box 1538, Hobart Tasmania 7001, Australia and Australian Antarctic Partnership Program, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia)
  • Francesco Tubiello (Statistics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via Terme di Caracalla, Rome 00153, Italy)
  • Guido van der Werf (Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
  • Nicolas Vuichard (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France)
  • Chisato Wada (Earth System Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506 Japan)
  • Rik Wanninkhof (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML), Miami, FL 33149, USA)
  • Andrew Watson (College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK)
  • David Willis (Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK)
  • Andrew J. Wiltshire (Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK)
  • Wenping Yuan (School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 510245, China)
  • Chao Yue (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France)
  • Xu Yue (School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST))
  • Sönke Zaehle (Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany)
  • Jiye Zeng (Earth System Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506 Japan)
  • Atlas Team Members at LSCE, France
  • P Ciais | A Peregon | P Brockmann
  • Communications Team
  • N Hawtin | K Mansell | J Walton | E Pihl