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Regional Contributions



CARBOAFRICA will contribute to the enhancement of an Earth observations system, strengthening the capacity of Europe to understand global change process. The scientific and technological results, in addition to the capacity building activities foreseen by this project, will promote the integration of the environmental dimension in the social and economic context, supporting Sub-Saharan African countries on the path of a sustainable development.

Amazonia top

Carbon Cycle Research-LBA The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is an international research initiative led by Brazil. LBA is designed to create the new knowledge needed to understand the climatological, ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological functioning of Amazonia, the impact of land use change on these functions, and the interactions between Amazonia and the Earth system.

Amazon Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR) is an international network that has been established to monitor the biomass and dynamics of Amazonian forests. RAINFOR was established as part of CARBONSINK, the European contribution to the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA).

Australia top

Australian Blueprint for terrestrial carbon research, 2005 (PDF, 1.5Mb). In February 2005 the Australian Greenhouse Office (AGO) convened a workshop in Canberra on carbon cycle research. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together all of the major Australian researchers/institutions in terrestrial atmospheric carbon cycle research work towards a more focused, integrative programme at the national level. This document is an outcome of that workshop and feedback from various participants. It describes the current state of research and identifies priority research themes for terrestrial carbon cycle research (see Appendix 1 and 2).

Australia’s National Inventory Given the size of Australia's land sector it is not economically feasible or logistically practical to measure emissions and removals of greenhouse gases over such a large area with the use of direct emissions estimation methods alone e.g. field sampling. Given these national circumstances, the design of Australia's national inventory system for the land sector relies heavily on the use of a modelling framework, to estimate the carbon stock change in biomass (abov and belowground, litter and soil carbon resulting from land use and management activities.

Australia CSIRO Biosphere Working Group Science Plan (DOC, 188Kb). CSIRO Biosphere Working Group. Author: Michael Raupach . CSIRO Biosphere Working Group. Author: Michael Raupach. The Biosphere Working Group (BWG) brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from several different CSIRO Divisions. Its focus is the interaction between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere, particularly the role of the biosphere in the cycles of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and others).

Canada top

BIOCAP is Capturing Canada’s Green Advantage by building research partnerships to encourage productive, competitive and sustainable methods for using our country’s biological capital to create clean, sustainable forms of energy, fight climate change and encourage rural economic development.

China top

Study on Carbon Budget for Ecosystems of China (PDF, 1.4Mb ). Study on Carbon Budget for Ecosystems of China: Aspects and Progress, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences presented at the 20th SC-IGBP Meeting, Feb. 19~23, 2005, Beijing.

Europe top

Integrated Assessment of the European and North Atlantic Carbon Balance (2009) (PDF, 4.7 Mb)
Key results, policy implications for post 2012 and research needs. A recent publication by the European Commission provides a comprehensive assessment of the European and North Atlantic carbon balance based on results of two integrated research activities under the 6th Framework Programme for Research: CARBOEUROPE and CARBOOCEAN. The report highlights key scientific findings, their implication for policy making and future research needs, unfolding some of the complex and emerging scientific and policy issues associated with climate change and the carbon cycle.

Integrated Carbon Observation System (2008-2011) The project aims are:
1. To provide the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behavior of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions.
2. To monitor and assess the effectiveness of carbon sequestration and/or greenhouse gases emission reduction activities on global atmospheric composition levels, including attribution of sources and sinks by region and sector.

CarboEurope Integrated project. To advance our understanding in a multidisciplinary and integrated way, 61 research centres from 17 European countries have joined forces for a 5-year EU-funded research project started in January 2004.CarboEurope-IP addresses basic scientific questions of high political relevance.

CarboEurope Integrated Project (2004-2008) (PDF, 1.2Mb). The overarching aim of the CarboEurope-IP is to understand and quantify the present terrestrial carbon balance of Europe and the associated uncertainty at local, regional and continental scale.

CarboEurope - Greenhouse Gas Budgets aims to provide a synthesis based on current research results of the European greenhouse gases budget, including both human induced and biospheric sources and sinks and recommendations for a multi-disciplinary integration in order to provide the scientific foundation for a full carbon and, even broader, full greenhouse gas accounting system by 2010.

Geoland: Carbon Observatory. The integrated GMES project on land cover and vegetation aims to develop and demonstrate a range of reliable, affordable and cost efficient European geo-information services, supporting the implementation of European directives and their national implementation, as well as European and International policies.

CARBO-North is an EU-funded project which started in November 2006 involving scientists from across northern Europe, Russia and the USA. CARBO-North addresses the topic of Regional Carbon and Greenhouse Budgets and aims at quantifying the carbon budget in Northern Russia across temporal and spatial scales.

Greenhouse Gas Management of the European Land Systems. The GHG-Europe project aims to improve our understanding and capacity for predicting the European terrestrial carbon and greenhouse gas budget.

India top

Terrestrial Carbon Budget of India (PDF, 5.9Mb) Regional carbon budgets: From Methodologies to Quantification, GCP Workshop 2004.

Japan top

ALOS Kyoto-Carbon Initiative. The ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative is an international collaborative project led by JAXA Earth Observation Research Center (EORC). It forms the continuation of JAXA's on-going JERS-1 SAR Global Rain Forest and Global Boreal Forest Mapping project (GRFM/GBFM) into the era of the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS).

Mexico top

Programa Mexicano del Carbono (PMC) aims to coordinate scientific activities related to the study of the carbon cycle in Mexico, serve as the Mexican scientific counterpart to similar programs in other countries, develop and encourage scientific research concerned with the carbon cycle in Mexico, and systematize scientific data about carbon.

New Zealand top

Research on Greenhouse Gases and Carbon Sinks Science underpinning New Zealand’s ability to significantly reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, move towards a permanent downward trend for total emissions, adapt to the effects of climate change, and manage risks and opportunities arising from climate change impacts.

North America top

CarboNA (formerly the Joint North American Carbon Program, JNACP) is a joint government-level initiative between Canada, the US and Mexico whose goal is to establish greater cohesion across North America in the fields of carbon pool and greenhouse gas flux dynamics and of carbon related mitigation strategies, through the identification of continental-scale priority issues and promotion of collaborative research in areas of common interest and complementary expertise.

Russia and Northern Eurasia top

Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative, or NEESPI, is a currently active, yet strategically evolving program of internationally-supported Earth systems science research, which has as its foci issues in northern Eurasia that are relevant to regional and Global scientific and decision-making communities.

Southeast Asia top

The CARBOPEAT project is funded by the European Union as a Specific Support Action under Framework Programme 6. Utilizing and synergizing results from 3 INCO research projects, CARBOPEAT promotes enhanced understanding and awareness of carbon-climate-human interactions in tropical peatlands, focusing on vulnerabilities of and risks to their carbon pools and mitigation to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, through ‘wise use’ of natural resources.

United Kingdom top

Land Use Change and Forestry Sector of the Greenhouse Gas Inventory is a source and archive of data and calculations related to the Land Use Change and Forestry Sector of the Greenhouse Gas Inventory for the UK. Estimates of future Removals and Emissions of carbon dioxide by Land Use Change and Forestry are also available.

Quantifying and Understanding the Earth System. The purpose of QUEST's programme is to deliver a step-change improvement in scientists' ability to predict environmental change, to assess the implications for the sustainable use of resources, to seek action-oriented research outputs, and to inform decision-making.

United States top

State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR) (pdf, 9.9Mb) was first developed by the Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group (CCIWG) of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program in consultation with its Carbon Cycle Science Steering Group. This is the first State of the Carbon Cycle Report and talks about the North American Carbon Budget and the Implications for the Global Carbon Cycle.

Carbon Cycle Science Program – An Interagency Partnership supports coordination of the research among the interagency partners aimed at the understanding of carbon sources and sinks of North America and adjacent oceans.

China Carbon Consortium (USCCC) is a collaborative consortium between American and Chinese institutions interested in studying the role of managed ecosystems in the global carbon and water cycles.

CQUEST - Carbon Query and Evaluation Support Tools provides access to geographic data from NASA Ames Research Center, Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch for carbon sequestration predictions throughout the United States.

Repeat hydrography in support to CLIVAR and C programs provides background on the scientific rationale and scope of the integrated approach to a global observational program for carbon, hydrographic and tracer measurements.

Carbon Cycle Research Program (CCSP) is an interagency partnership that draws on the expertise and ongoing research in seven agencies, with the objective of developing a whole-system predictive capability for the global carbon system.

US-Strategic Plan for Climate Change Science Program (PDF, 1.66Mb) (2003) Chapter 7. The Carbon cycle. The document is the first comprehensive update of a national plan for climate and global change research since the original U.S. Global Change Research Program strategy was issued at the inception of the program in 1989.

US-DOE Carbon sequestration. Technology roadmap and program plan (PDF, 648Kb) (2003). This document was the 2003 vision of how to proceed in the development of carbon sequestration technology.

Carbon Sequestration (PDF, 4.43 Mb), Technology Roadmap and Program Plan 2005. Developing the Technology Base and Infrastructure to Enable Sequestration as a Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Option. May 2005.

A Large-Scale CO2 Observing Plan: In Situ Oceans and Atmosphere (LSCOP) (PDF, 15.1Mb). A contribution to the implementation of the US Carbon Cycle Science Plan (2002). Authors: Observation Working Group.

The North American Carbon Program (PDF, 1.13Mb) (2002). A report of the NACP Committee of the US Interagency Carbon Cycle Science Program. Authors: Steven C. Wofsy and Robert C. Harriss (co-chairs).

North American Carbon Plan (NACP) - Implementation Plan


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